X-Git-Url: https://www.bearssl.org/gitweb//home/git/?p=BearSSL;a=blobdiff_plain;f=inc%2Fbearssl_rsa.h;h=b9362a311f64c7601e8f5d6802a333e20a2fff33;hp=cbda5d36a4a679e7ad850ecb28fc5c0dc05b3cbe;hb=89ea3b1876d6a17a754c1f80c74f5076eccda866;hpb=3210f38e0491b39aec1ef419cb4114e9483089fb
diff --git a/inc/bearssl_rsa.h b/inc/bearssl_rsa.h
index cbda5d3..b9362a3 100644
--- a/inc/bearssl_rsa.h
+++ b/inc/bearssl_rsa.h
@@ -28,108 +28,226 @@
#include
#include
-/*
- * RSA
- * ---
- *
- * A RSA engine consists in two functions, for public-key and private-key
- * operations (modular exponentiations). In both cases, the same buffer is
- * used as source and destination.
- *
- * Key elements are provided as arrays of bytes, in big-endian unsigned
- * encoding (leading zeros are correctly skipped, hence signed encodings
- * can also be used). The source/destination array (x[]) is an array of
- * bytes that, per PKCS#1 rules, MUST have the same length as the modulus,
- * exactly: missing or extra leading bytes, even of value 0x00, are not
- * tolerated for x[].
- *
- * Parameter validation: the engine MUST gracefully handle incorrect key
- * parameters (e.g. an even modulus); it needs not detect all cases of
- * incorrect key parameters. For public key operations, the engine MUST
- * validate the length of x[] (it must match the numerical length, in
- * bytes, of the modulus); it MUST also check that the provided x[]
- * decodes to an integer that is numerically less than the modulus. For
- * private key operation, the engine may assume that the length and
- * contents of x[] are appropriate (it MUST NOT allow an invalid value
- * to result in a buffer overflow, but an invalid input x[] may result
- * in an undetected invalid output).
- *
- * Constant-time requirements: the following information may leak through
- * execution time and memory access pattern:
- * -- the actual bit length of the modulus;
- * -- the actual bit length of each prime factor;
- * -- the byte lengths as provided to the function calls.
+/** \file bearssl_rsa.h
+ *
+ * # RSA
+ *
+ * This file documents the RSA implementations provided with BearSSL.
+ * Note that the SSL engine accesses these implementations through a
+ * configurable API, so it is possible to, for instance, run a SSL
+ * server which uses a RSA engine which is not based on this code.
+ *
+ * ## Key Elements
+ *
+ * RSA public and private keys consist in lists of big integers. All
+ * such integers are represented with big-endian unsigned notation:
+ * first byte is the most significant, and the value is positive (so
+ * there is no dedicated "sign bit"). Public and private key structures
+ * thus contain, for each such integer, a pointer to the first value byte
+ * (`unsigned char *`), and a length (`size_t`) which is the number of
+ * relevant bytes. As a general rule, minimal-length encoding is not
+ * enforced: values may have extra leading bytes of value 0.
+ *
+ * RSA public keys consist in two integers:
+ *
+ * - the modulus (`n`);
+ * - the public exponent (`e`).
+ *
+ * RSA private keys, as defined in
+ * [PKCS#1](https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3447), contain eight integers:
+ *
+ * - the modulus (`n`);
+ * - the public exponent (`e`);
+ * - the private exponent (`d`);
+ * - the first prime factor (`p`);
+ * - the second prime factor (`q`);
+ * - the first reduced exponent (`dp`, which is `d` modulo `p-1`);
+ * - the second reduced exponent (`dq`, which is `d` modulo `q-1`);
+ * - the CRT coefficient (`iq`, the inverse of `q` modulo `p`).
+ *
+ * However, the implementations defined in BearSSL use only five of
+ * these integers: `p`, `q`, `dp`, `dq` and `iq`.
+ *
+ * ## Security Features and Limitations
+ *
+ * The implementations contained in BearSSL have the following limitations
+ * and features:
+ *
+ * - They are constant-time. This means that the execution time and
+ * memory access pattern may depend on the _lengths_ of the private
+ * key components, but not on their value, nor on the value of
+ * the operand. Note that this property is not achieved through
+ * random masking, but "true" constant-time code.
+ *
+ * - They support only private keys with two prime factors. RSA private
+ * key with three or more prime factors are nominally supported, but
+ * rarely used; they may offer faster operations, at the expense of
+ * more code and potentially a reduction in security if there are
+ * "too many" prime factors.
+ *
+ * - The public exponent may have arbitrary length. Of course, it is
+ * a good idea to keep public exponents small, so that public key
+ * operations are fast; but, contrary to some widely deployed
+ * implementations, BearSSL has no problem with public exponent
+ * longer than 32 bits.
+ *
+ * - The two prime factors of the modulus need not have the same length
+ * (but severely imbalanced factor lengths might reduce security).
+ * Similarly, there is no requirement that the first factor (`p`)
+ * be greater than the second factor (`q`).
+ *
+ * - Prime factors and modulus must be smaller than a compile-time limit.
+ * This is made necessary by the use of fixed-size stack buffers, and
+ * the limit has been adjusted to keep stack usage under 2 kB for the
+ * RSA operations. Currently, the maximum modulus size is 4096 bits,
+ * and the maximum prime factor size is 2080 bits.
+ *
+ * - The RSA functions themselves do not enforce lower size limits,
+ * except that which is absolutely necessary for the operation to
+ * mathematically make sense (e.g. a PKCS#1 v1.5 signature with
+ * SHA-1 requires a modulus of at least 361 bits). It is up to users
+ * of this code to enforce size limitations when appropriate (e.g.
+ * the X.509 validation engine, by default, rejects RSA keys of
+ * less than 1017 bits).
+ *
+ * - Within the size constraints expressed above, arbitrary bit lengths
+ * are supported. There is no requirement that prime factors or
+ * modulus have a size multiple of 8 or 16.
+ *
+ * - When verifying PKCS#1 v1.5 signatures, both variants of the hash
+ * function identifying header (with and without the ASN.1 NULL) are
+ * supported. When producing such signatures, the variant with the
+ * ASN.1 NULL is used.
+ *
+ * ## Implementations
+ *
+ * Three RSA implementations are included:
+ *
+ * - The **i32** implementation internally represents big integers
+ * as arrays of 32-bit integers. It is perfunctory and portable,
+ * but not very efficient.
+ *
+ * - The **i31** implementation uses 32-bit integers, each containing
+ * 31 bits worth of integer data. The i31 implementation is somewhat
+ * faster than the i32 implementation (the reduced integer size makes
+ * carry propagation easier) for a similar code footprint, but uses
+ * very slightly larger stack buffers (about 4% bigger).
+ *
+ * - The **i15** implementation uses 16-bit integers, each containing
+ * 15 bits worth of integer data. Multiplication results fit on
+ * 32 bits, so this won't use the "widening" multiplication routine
+ * on ARM Cortex M0/M0+, for much better performance and constant-time
+ * execution.
*/
-/*
- * A structure type for a RSA public key, consisting in a modulus and
- * a public exponent, encoded in unsigned big-endian format. The two
- * arrays may be larger than needed; functions that accept a RSA public
- * key are supposed to check the actual modulus length when needed.
+/**
+ * \brief RSA public key.
+ *
+ * The structure references the modulus and the public exponent. Both
+ * integers use unsigned big-endian representation; extra leading bytes
+ * of value 0 are allowed.
*/
typedef struct {
+ /** \brief Modulus. */
unsigned char *n;
+ /** \brief Modulus length (in bytes). */
size_t nlen;
+ /** \brief Public exponent. */
unsigned char *e;
+ /** \brief Public exponent length (in bytes). */
size_t elen;
} br_rsa_public_key;
-/*
- * A structure type for a RSA private key. The key elements are:
- * n_bitlen modulus bit length
- * p prime modulus factor
- * q other prime modulus factor (may be greater or lower than p)
- * dp private exponent, reduced modulo p-1
- * dq private exponent, reduced modulo q-1
- * iq CRT coefficient: q*iq = 1 mod p.
+/**
+ * \brief RSA private key.
+ *
+ * The structure references the primvate factors, reduced private
+ * exponents, and CRT coefficient. It also contains the bit length of
+ * the modulus. The big integers use unsigned big-endian representation;
+ * extra leading bytes of value 0 are allowed. However, the modulus bit
+ * length (`n_bitlen`) MUST be exact.
*/
typedef struct {
+ /** \brief Modulus bit length (in bits, exact value). */
uint32_t n_bitlen;
+ /** \brief First prime factor. */
unsigned char *p;
+ /** \brief First prime factor length (in bytes). */
size_t plen;
+ /** \brief Second prime factor. */
unsigned char *q;
+ /** \brief Second prime factor length (in bytes). */
size_t qlen;
+ /** \brief First reduced private exponent. */
unsigned char *dp;
+ /** \brief First reduced private exponent length (in bytes). */
size_t dplen;
+ /** \brief Second reduced private exponent. */
unsigned char *dq;
+ /** \brief Second reduced private exponent length (in bytes). */
size_t dqlen;
+ /** \brief CRT coefficient. */
unsigned char *iq;
+ /** \brief CRT coefficient length (in bytes). */
size_t iqlen;
} br_rsa_private_key;
-/*
- * Type for a public-key engine. The source buffer x[], of size xlen,
- * is modified in place.
+/**
+ * \brief Type for a RSA public key engine.
*
- * Returned value is 1 on success, 0 on error.
+ * The public key engine performs the modular exponentiation of the
+ * provided value with the public exponent. The value is modified in
+ * place.
+ *
+ * The value length (`xlen`) is verified to have _exactly_ the same
+ * length as the modulus (actual modulus length, without extra leading
+ * zeros in the modulus representation in memory). If the length does
+ * not match, then this function returns 0 and `x[]` is unmodified.
+ *
+ * It `xlen` is correct, then `x[]` is modified. Returned value is 1
+ * on success, 0 on error. Error conditions include an oversized `x[]`
+ * (the array has the same length as the modulus, but the numerical value
+ * is not lower than the modulus) and an invalid modulus (e.g. an even
+ * integer). If an error is reported, then the new contents of `x[]` are
+ * unspecified.
*
- * If the source buffer length (xlen) does not exactly match the modulus
- * length, then an error is reported and x[] is unmodified.
+ * \param x operand to exponentiate.
+ * \param xlen length of the operand (in bytes).
+ * \param pk RSA public key.
+ * \return 1 on success, 0 on error.
*/
typedef uint32_t (*br_rsa_public)(unsigned char *x, size_t xlen,
const br_rsa_public_key *pk);
-/*
- * Type for a RSA signature verification engine (PKCS#1 v1.5 signatures).
+/**
+ * \brief Type for a RSA signature verification engine (PKCS#1 v1.5).
+ *
* Parameters are:
- * -- The signature itself. The provided array is NOT modified.
- * -- The encoded OID for the hash function. The provided array must begin
- * with a single byte that contains the length of the OID value (in
- * bytes), followed by exactly that many bytes.
- * This parameter may be NULL, in which case the raw hash value should
- * be used with the PKCS#1 v1.5 "type 1" padding (used in SSL/TLS up
- * to TLS-1.1, with a 36-byte hash value).
- * -- The hash output length, in bytes.
- * -- The public key.
- * -- An output buffer for the hash value. The caller must still compare
- * it with the hash of the data over which the signature is computed.
- *
- * CONSTRAINTS:
- * -- Hash length MUST be no more than 64 bytes.
- * -- OID value length MUST be no more than 32 bytes (i.e. hash_oid[0]
- * must have a value in the 0..32 range, inclusive).
- *
- * This function verifies that the signature length (xlen) matches the
+ *
+ * - The signature itself. The provided array is NOT modified.
+ *
+ * - The encoded OID for the hash function. The provided array must begin
+ * with a single byte that contains the length of the OID value (in
+ * bytes), followed by exactly that many bytes. This parameter may
+ * also be `NULL`, in which case the raw hash value should be used
+ * with the PKCS#1 v1.5 "type 1" padding (as used in SSL/TLS up
+ * to TLS-1.1, with a 36-byte hash value).
+ *
+ * - The hash output length, in bytes.
+ *
+ * - The public key.
+ *
+ * - An output buffer for the hash value. The caller must still compare
+ * it with the hash of the data over which the signature is computed.
+ *
+ * **Constraints:**
+ *
+ * - Hash length MUST be no more than 64 bytes.
+ *
+ * - OID value length MUST be no more than 32 bytes (i.e. `hash_oid[0]`
+ * must have a value in the 0..32 range, inclusive).
+ *
+ * This function verifies that the signature length (`xlen`) matches the
* modulus length (this function returns 0 on mismatch). If the modulus
* size exceeds the maximum supported RSA size, then the function also
* returns 0.
@@ -137,42 +255,69 @@ typedef uint32_t (*br_rsa_public)(unsigned char *x, size_t xlen,
* Returned value is 1 on success, 0 on error.
*
* Implementations of this type need not be constant-time.
+ *
+ * \param x signature buffer.
+ * \param xlen signature length (in bytes).
+ * \param hash_oid encoded hash algorithm OID (or `NULL`).
+ * \param hash_len expected hash value length (in bytes).
+ * \param pk RSA public key.
+ * \param hash_out output buffer for the hash value.
+ * \return 1 on success, 0 on error.
*/
typedef uint32_t (*br_rsa_pkcs1_vrfy)(const unsigned char *x, size_t xlen,
const unsigned char *hash_oid, size_t hash_len,
const br_rsa_public_key *pk, unsigned char *hash_out);
-/*
- * Type for a private-key engine. The x[] buffer is modified in place, and
- * its length is inferred from the modulus length (x[] is assumed to have
- * a length of (sk->n_bitlen+7)/8 bytes).
+/**
+ * \brief Type for a RSA private key engine.
+ *
+ * The `x[]` buffer is modified in place, and its length is inferred from
+ * the modulus length (`x[]` is assumed to have a length of
+ * `(sk->n_bitlen+7)/8` bytes).
*
* Returned value is 1 on success, 0 on error.
+ *
+ * \param x operand to exponentiate.
+ * \param sk RSA private key.
+ * \return 1 on success, 0 on error.
*/
typedef uint32_t (*br_rsa_private)(unsigned char *x,
const br_rsa_private_key *sk);
-/*
- * Type for a RSA signature generation engine (PKCS#1 v1.5 signatures).
+/**
+ * \brief Type for a RSA signature generation engine (PKCS#1 v1.5).
+ *
* Parameters are:
- * -- The encoded OID for the hash function. The provided array must begin
- * with a single byte that contains the length of the OID value (in
- * bytes), followed by exactly that many bytes.
- * This parameter may be NULL, in which case the raw hash value should
- * be used with the PKCS#1 v1.5 "type 1" padding (used in SSL/TLS up
- * to TLS-1.1, with a 36-byte hash value).
- * -- The hashed data, and length (in bytes).
- * -- The private key.
- * -- The output buffer.
+ *
+ * - The encoded OID for the hash function. The provided array must begin
+ * with a single byte that contains the length of the OID value (in
+ * bytes), followed by exactly that many bytes. This parameter may
+ * also be `NULL`, in which case the raw hash value should be used
+ * with the PKCS#1 v1.5 "type 1" padding (as used in SSL/TLS up
+ * to TLS-1.1, with a 36-byte hash value).
+ *
+ * - The hash value computes over the data to sign (its length is
+ * expressed in bytes).
+ *
+ * - The RSA private key.
+ *
+ * - The output buffer, that receives the signature.
*
* Returned value is 1 on success, 0 on error. Error conditions include
* a too small modulus for the provided hash OID and value, or some
* invalid key parameters. The signature length is exactly
- * (sk->n_bitlen+7)/8 bytes.
+ * `(sk->n_bitlen+7)/8` bytes.
*
* This function is expected to be constant-time with regards to the
* private key bytes (lengths of the modulus and the individual factors
* may leak, though) and to the hashed data.
+ *
+ * \param hash_oid encoded hash algorithm OID (or `NULL`).
+ * \param hash hash value.
+ * \param hash_len hash value length (in bytes).
+ * \param sk RSA private key.
+ * \param x output buffer for the signature value.
+ * \return 1 on success, 0 on error.
*/
typedef uint32_t (*br_rsa_pkcs1_sign)(const unsigned char *hash_oid,
const unsigned char *hash, size_t hash_len,
@@ -184,13 +329,60 @@ typedef uint32_t (*br_rsa_pkcs1_sign)(const unsigned char *hash_oid,
* 32x32->64 multiplication.
*/
+/**
+ * \brief RSA public key engine "i32".
+ *
+ * \see br_rsa_public
+ *
+ * \param x operand to exponentiate.
+ * \param xlen length of the operand (in bytes).
+ * \param pk RSA public key.
+ * \return 1 on success, 0 on error.
+ */
uint32_t br_rsa_i32_public(unsigned char *x, size_t xlen,
const br_rsa_public_key *pk);
+
+/**
+ * \brief RSA signature verification engine "i32".
+ *
+ * \see br_rsa_pkcs1_vrfy
+ *
+ * \param x signature buffer.
+ * \param xlen signature length (in bytes).
+ * \param hash_oid encoded hash algorithm OID (or `NULL`).
+ * \param hash_len expected hash value length (in bytes).
+ * \param pk RSA public key.
+ * \param hash_out output buffer for the hash value.
+ * \return 1 on success, 0 on error.
+ */
uint32_t br_rsa_i32_pkcs1_vrfy(const unsigned char *x, size_t xlen,
const unsigned char *hash_oid, size_t hash_len,
const br_rsa_public_key *pk, unsigned char *hash_out);
+
+/**
+ * \brief RSA private key engine "i32".
+ *
+ * \see br_rsa_private
+ *
+ * \param x operand to exponentiate.
+ * \param sk RSA private key.
+ * \return 1 on success, 0 on error.
+ */
uint32_t br_rsa_i32_private(unsigned char *x,
const br_rsa_private_key *sk);
+
+/**
+ * \brief RSA signature generation engine "i32".
+ *
+ * \see br_rsa_pkcs1_sign
+ *
+ * \param hash_oid encoded hash algorithm OID (or `NULL`).
+ * \param hash hash value.
+ * \param hash_len hash value length (in bytes).
+ * \param sk RSA private key.
+ * \param x output buffer for the hash value.
+ * \return 1 on success, 0 on error.
+ */
uint32_t br_rsa_i32_pkcs1_sign(const unsigned char *hash_oid,
const unsigned char *hash, size_t hash_len,
const br_rsa_private_key *sk, unsigned char *x);
@@ -201,25 +393,154 @@ uint32_t br_rsa_i32_pkcs1_sign(const unsigned char *hash_oid,
* space, but it quite faster.
*/
+/**
+ * \brief RSA public key engine "i31".
+ *
+ * \see br_rsa_public
+ *
+ * \param x operand to exponentiate.
+ * \param xlen length of the operand (in bytes).
+ * \param pk RSA public key.
+ * \return 1 on success, 0 on error.
+ */
uint32_t br_rsa_i31_public(unsigned char *x, size_t xlen,
const br_rsa_public_key *pk);
+
+/**
+ * \brief RSA signature verification engine "i31".
+ *
+ * \see br_rsa_pkcs1_vrfy
+ *
+ * \param x signature buffer.
+ * \param xlen signature length (in bytes).
+ * \param hash_oid encoded hash algorithm OID (or `NULL`).
+ * \param hash_len expected hash value length (in bytes).
+ * \param pk RSA public key.
+ * \param hash_out output buffer for the hash value.
+ * \return 1 on success, 0 on error.
+ */
uint32_t br_rsa_i31_pkcs1_vrfy(const unsigned char *x, size_t xlen,
const unsigned char *hash_oid, size_t hash_len,
const br_rsa_public_key *pk, unsigned char *hash_out);
+
+/**
+ * \brief RSA private key engine "i31".
+ *
+ * \see br_rsa_private
+ *
+ * \param x operand to exponentiate.
+ * \param sk RSA private key.
+ * \return 1 on success, 0 on error.
+ */
uint32_t br_rsa_i31_private(unsigned char *x,
const br_rsa_private_key *sk);
+
+/**
+ * \brief RSA signature generation engine "i31".
+ *
+ * \see br_rsa_pkcs1_sign
+ *
+ * \param hash_oid encoded hash algorithm OID (or `NULL`).
+ * \param hash hash value.
+ * \param hash_len hash value length (in bytes).
+ * \param sk RSA private key.
+ * \param x output buffer for the hash value.
+ * \return 1 on success, 0 on error.
+ */
uint32_t br_rsa_i31_pkcs1_sign(const unsigned char *hash_oid,
const unsigned char *hash, size_t hash_len,
const br_rsa_private_key *sk, unsigned char *x);
/*
- * Perform RSA decryption for SSL/TLS. This function uses the provided core
- * and private key to decrypt the message in data[] of size 'len'. The
- * buffer is modified; the decryption result MUST have length 48, and
- * is written into the first 48 bytes of data[].
+ * RSA "i15" engine. Integers are represented as 15-bit integers, so
+ * the code uses only 32-bit multiplication (no 64-bit result), which
+ * is vastly faster (and constant-time) on the ARM Cortex M0/M0+.
+ */
+
+/**
+ * \brief RSA public key engine "i15".
+ *
+ * \see br_rsa_public
+ *
+ * \param x operand to exponentiate.
+ * \param xlen length of the operand (in bytes).
+ * \param pk RSA public key.
+ * \return 1 on success, 0 on error.
+ */
+uint32_t br_rsa_i15_public(unsigned char *x, size_t xlen,
+ const br_rsa_public_key *pk);
+
+/**
+ * \brief RSA signature verification engine "i15".
+ *
+ * \see br_rsa_pkcs1_vrfy
+ *
+ * \param x signature buffer.
+ * \param xlen signature length (in bytes).
+ * \param hash_oid encoded hash algorithm OID (or `NULL`).
+ * \param hash_len expected hash value length (in bytes).
+ * \param pk RSA public key.
+ * \param hash_out output buffer for the hash value.
+ * \return 1 on success, 0 on error.
+ */
+uint32_t br_rsa_i15_pkcs1_vrfy(const unsigned char *x, size_t xlen,
+ const unsigned char *hash_oid, size_t hash_len,
+ const br_rsa_public_key *pk, unsigned char *hash_out);
+
+/**
+ * \brief RSA private key engine "i15".
+ *
+ * \see br_rsa_private
+ *
+ * \param x operand to exponentiate.
+ * \param sk RSA private key.
+ * \return 1 on success, 0 on error.
+ */
+uint32_t br_rsa_i15_private(unsigned char *x,
+ const br_rsa_private_key *sk);
+
+/**
+ * \brief RSA signature generation engine "i15".
+ *
+ * \see br_rsa_pkcs1_sign
+ *
+ * \param hash_oid encoded hash algorithm OID (or `NULL`).
+ * \param hash hash value.
+ * \param hash_len hash value length (in bytes).
+ * \param sk RSA private key.
+ * \param x output buffer for the hash value.
+ * \return 1 on success, 0 on error.
+ */
+uint32_t br_rsa_i15_pkcs1_sign(const unsigned char *hash_oid,
+ const unsigned char *hash, size_t hash_len,
+ const br_rsa_private_key *sk, unsigned char *x);
+
+/**
+ * \brief RSA decryption helper, for SSL/TLS.
+ *
+ * This function performs the RSA decryption for a RSA-based key exchange
+ * in a SSL/TLS server. The provided RSA engine is used. The `data`
+ * parameter points to the value to decrypt, of length `len` bytes. On
+ * success, the 48-byte pre-master secret is copied into `data`, starting
+ * at the first byte of that buffer; on error, the contents of `data`
+ * become indeterminate.
+ *
+ * This function first checks that the provided value length (`len`) is
+ * not lower than 59 bytes, and matches the RSA modulus length; if neither
+ * of this property is met, then this function returns 0 and the buffer
+ * is unmodified.
+ *
+ * Otherwise, decryption and then padding verification are performed, both
+ * in constant-time. A decryption error, or a bad padding, or an
+ * incorrect decrypted value length are reported with a returned value of
+ * 0; on success, 1 is returned. The caller (SSL server engine) is supposed
+ * to proceed with a random pre-master secret in case of error.
*
- * In success, this rturns 1. On error, 0 is returned, and the buffer
- * contents are indeterminate.
+ * \param core RSA private key engine.
+ * \param sk RSA private key.
+ * \param data input/output buffer.
+ * \param len length (in bytes) of the data to decrypt.
+ * \return 1 on success, 0 on error.
*/
uint32_t br_rsa_ssl_decrypt(br_rsa_private core, const br_rsa_private_key *sk,
unsigned char *data, size_t len);